Prof. Barbara Schmidt

University of Pennsylvania, USA and McMaster University Ontario, Canada


1971-1976 M.D. Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany
1977-1977 M.D. Thesis, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany
1992 MSc in Design, Measurement and Evaluation McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Postgraduate Training and Fellowship Appointments:
1976-1977 Internship in Medicine and Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Freiburg, and Surgery, City Hospital of Lörrach, Germany
1978-1982 Pediatric Residency, University Children’s Hospital, Freiburg, Germany
1982-1983 Fellowship, Hematology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
1983-1985 Fellowship, Neonatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
1985-1988 Research Fellowship, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; Supervisor: Dr. Maureen Andrew
1988-1988 Resident IV, Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada

Faculty Appointments:
1989-1993 Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Canada
1993-1998 Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Canada
1998-2007 Professor, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Canada
1999-2007 Professor, Departments of Pediatrics, and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (JOINT), McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Canada
Since 2007 Professor, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics – renamed Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, andImpact (Part-time), Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
2007-2018 Professor of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (Primary Appointment)
2008-2018 Senior Scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (Secondary Appointment)
Since 2018 Professor Emerita, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Hospital and Administrative Appointments:
1989-2007 Attending Neonatologist, Hamilton Health Sciences
1990-1995 Director, Fellowship Program in Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine, McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Canada
2002-2006 Medical Director, Neonatal Transport Team, Hamilton Health Sciences, Canada
2007-2018 Attending Neonatologist, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, and Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
2007-2018 Director of Clinical Research, Division of Neonatology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA

Specialty Certification:
1984 Certification in Pediatrics, Germany
1988 Certification in Pediatrics, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
Licensure: Ontario, Canada, and Pennsylvania, USA until 2018




Bibliography as of January 2022:
Original Research Publications, peer reviewed: (* indicates that B. Schmidt was the Supervisor of a First Author Trainee)

1. Schmidt B, Pringsheim W, Kunzer W: Epsilon-Aminokapronsaeure zur Behandlung einer schweren und dominierenden Hyperfibrinolyse bei einem unreifen Neugeborenen. Helv Paediatr Acta 1980; 35:273-279 (Episilon-aminocaproic-acid for the treatment of severe hyperfibrinolysis in a preterm infant).
2. Schmidt B, Kunzer W: Diagnose und Behandlung einer neonatalen Isoimmun Thrombozytopenie. Helv Paediatr Acta 1981; 36:445-449 (Diagnosis and treatment of a neonatal isoimmuno-thrombocytopenia).
3. Schmidt B, Wais U, Pringsheim W, Witt I, Kunzer W: Decreased production or increased turnover of antithrombin III in severe acquired coagulopathy? Klin Wochenschr 1981; 59:1349-1351.
4. Schmidt B, Wais U, Furste HO, Pringsheim W: Arterial occlusion in a preterm infant. Successful non-surgical treatment with urokinase and low-dose heparin. Helv Paediatr Acta 1982; 37:483-488.
5. Schmidt B: Inhibition of platelet function in pediatric medicine. Klin Padiatr 1982; 194:91- 93.
6. Forster J, Schmidt B: Micro-enzyme-linked immunoassay for the quantitation of platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG). Klin Wochenschr 1983; 61:165-167.
7. Forster J, Schmidt B, Kunzer W: Anwendung eines Mikro-Enzym-Immuntests zur quantitativen Bestimmung von Plattchen-assoziiertem IgG in der Kinderheilkunde. Akute ITP und Thrombozytopenie nach Austauschtransfusion. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 1983; 131:157-160 (Use of an immunoenzyme microtechnic for quantitative determination of platelet- ssociated IgG in pediatrics. Acute idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura and thrombocytopenia following exchange transfusion).
8. von Petrykowski W, Schmidt B: High-dose conjugated estrogens do not reduce antithrombin III activity in tall girls. Horm Metab Res 1983; 15:412.
9. Schmidt B, Wais U, Pringsheim W, Kunzer W: Plasma elimination of antithrombin III (heparin cofactor activity) is accelerated in term newborn infants. Eur J Pediatr 1984; 141:225-227.
10.Schmidt B, Zipursky A: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) masking neonatal hemophilia. J Pediatr 1986; 109:886-888.
11.Schmidt B, Muraji T, Zipursky A: Low antithrombin III in neonatal shock: DIC or non-specific protein depletion? Eur J Pediatr 1986; 145:500-503.
12.Schmidt B, Kirpalani HM, Corey M, Low DE, Philip AGS, Ford-Jones EL: Coagulase-negative staphylococci as true pathogens in newborn infants: a cohort study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987; 6:1026-1031.
13.Andrew M, Mitchell L, Berry LR, Schmidt B, Hatton MWC: Fibrinogen has a rapid turnover in the healthy newborn lamb. Pediatr Res 1988; 23:249-252.
14.Schmidt B, Mitchell L, Ofosu F, Andrew M: Standard assays underestimate the concentration of heparin in neonatal plasma. J Lab Clin Med 1988; 112:641-643.
15.Andrew M, Ofosu F, Schmidt B, Brooker L, Buchanan M, Hirsh J: Heparin clearance and ex vivo recovery in newborn piglets and adult pigs. Thromb Res 1988; 52:517-527.
16.Schmidt B, Buchanan M, Ofosu F, Brooker L, Hirsh J, Andrew M: Antithrombotic properties of heparin in a neonatal piglet model of thrombin-induced thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 1988; 60:289-292.
17.Andrew M, Schmidt B: Use of heparin in newborn infants. Semin Thromb Hemost 1988; 14:28-32.
18.Kirpalani H, Schmidt B, McKibbon KA, Haynes RB, Sinclair JC: Searching MEDLINE for randomized clinical trials on care of the newborn. Pediatrics 1989; 83:543-546.
19.Schmidt B, Ofosu FA, Mitchell L, Brooker LA, Andrew M: Anticoagulant effects of heparin in neonatal plasma. Pediatr Res 1989; 25:405-408.
20.Schmidt B, Ofosu FA, Andrew M: Alpha-2-macroglobulin is an important progressive inhibitor of thrombin in neonatal and infant plasma. Thromb Haemost 1989; 62:1074-1077.
21.Andrew M, Schmidt B, Mitchell L, Paes B, Ofosu F: Thrombin generation in newborn plasma is critically dependent on the concentration of prothrombin. Thromb Haemost 1990; 63:27-30.
22.Kirpalani H, Koren G, Schmidt B, Tan Y, Santos R, Soldin S: Respiratory response and pharmacokinetics of intravenous salbutamol in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Crit Care Med 1990; 18:1374-7.
23.Kirpalani H, Schmidt B, Gaston S, Santos R, Wilkie R: Birthweight, early passive respiratory system mechanics and ventilator requirements as predictors of outcome in premature infants with respiratory failure. Pediatr Pulmonol 1991; 10:195-198.
24.Low DE, Schmidt B, Kirpalani HM, Moodie R, Kreiswirth B, Matlow A, FordJones EL. An endemic strain of staphylococcus haemolyticus colonizing and causing bacteremia in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Pediatrics 1992; 89:696-700.
25.Schmidt B, Vegh P, Weitz J, Johnston M, Caco C, Roberts R: Thrombin antithrombin III complex formation in the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Resp Dis 1992; 145:767-70.
26.Shah J, Mitchell L, Paes B, Ofosu FA, Schmidt B, Andrew M: Thrombin Inhibition is Impaired in Plasma of Sick Neonates. Pediatr Res 1992; 31:391- 395.
27.Schmidt B, Vegh P, Andrew M, Johnston M: Coagulation screening tests in high-risk neonates: A prospective cohort study. Arch Dis Child 1992; 67:1196- 1197.
28.Schmidt B, Vegh P, Johnston M, Andrew M, Weitz J: Do coagulation screening tests detect increased generation of thrombin and plasmin in sick newborn infants? Thromb Haemost 1993; 69:418-421.
29.*Davis P, Turner-Gomes S, Cunningham K, Way C, Roberts R, Schmidt B. Precision and accuracy of clinical and radiological signs in infants at risk of patent ductus arteriosus. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1995; 149:1136-1141.
30.Schmidt B, Andrew M: Neonatal thrombosis: Report of a prospective Canadian and international registry. Pediatrics 1995;96:939-943.
31.Schmidt B, Davis P, La Pointe H, Monkman S, Coates G, deSa D. Thrombin inhibitors reduce intrapulmonary accumulation of fibrinogen and procoagulant activity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during acute lung injury induced by pulmonary overdistention in newborn piglets. Pediatr Res 1996; 39:798-804.
32.*Zupancic JAF, Gillie P, Streiner DL, Watts JL, Schmidt B. Determinants of parental authorization for involvement of newborn infants in clinical trials. Pediatrics 1997;99(1). URL: This article was cited in the Year Book of Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine 1998. Fanaroff AA, Maisels MJ, Stevenson DK. Ed. pp: 404-6.
33.Doyle J, Vreman HJ, Stevenson DK, Brown EJ, Schmidt B, Ohlsson A, Boulton J, Kelly E, Gillie P, Lewis N, Merko S, Shaw D, Zipursky A. Does vitamin C cause hemolysis in premature newborns? Results of a multicentre, doubleblind, randomized, controlled trial. J Pediatr 1997;130:103-9.
34.Kirpalani H, Abubakar K, Nahmias C, deSa D, Coates G, Schmidt B. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) uptake in neonatal acute lung injury measured by positron emission tomography (PET), Pediatr Res 1997;41:892-896.
35.Walker SE, Gray S, Schmidt B. Stability of reconstituted indomethacin sodium trihydrate (Indocid® P.D.A.). Am J Health Syst Pharm 1998;55:154-158.
36.Schmidt B, Gillie P, Mitchell L, Andrew M, Caco C, Roberts R. A placebocontrolled randomised trial of antithrombin therapy in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 1998;158:470-476.
37.*Abubakar K, Schmidt B, Monkman S, Webber C, deSa D, Roberts R. Heparin improves gas exchange during experimental acute lung injury in newborn piglets. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 1998;158:1620-1625.
38.Schmidt B, Gillie P, Caco C, Roberts J, Roberts R. Do sick newborn infants benefit from participation in a randomized clinical trial? J Pediatr. 1999;134:151- 155.
39.Lee SK, Zupancic JA, Pendray M, Thiessen P, Schmidt B, Whyte R, Shorten D, Stewart S; The Canadian Neonatal Network. Transport risk index of physiologic stability: a practical system for assessing infant transport care. J Pediatr 2001;139:220-6.
40.Schmidt B, Davis P, Moddemann D, Ohlsson A, Roberts R, Saigal S, Solimano A, Vincer M, Wright L, for the TIPP investigators. Long-term effects of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1966-1972.
41.*Roy M, Turner-Gomes S, Gill G, Way C, Mernagh J, Schmidt B. Accuracy of Doppler flow echocardiography for the diagnosis of thrombosis associated with umbilical venous catheters. J Pediatr 2002;140:131-4.
42.Davis PG, Thorpe K, Roberts RS, Schmidt B, Doyle L, Kirpalani H and the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP) Investigators. Evaluating old definitions for the new bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). J Pediatr 2002;140:555-560.
43.Zupancic JA, Richardson DK, O’Brien BJ, Schmidt B, Weinstein MC. Daily Cost Prediction Model in Neonatal Intensive Care. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2003;19:330-338.
44.Schmidt B, Asztalos EV, Roberts RS, Robertson CM, Sauve RS, Whitfield MF for the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP) Investigators. Impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury, and severe retinopathy on the outcome of extremely low-birth-weight infants at 18 months: results from the trial of indomethacin prophylaxis in preterms. AMA 2003; 289:1124-1129. This article was cited in the following Year Books: Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine 2004; Pediatrics 2004; and Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women’s Health 2005.
45.*Andersen C, Kent A, Schmidt B, Nahmias C, deSa D, Bourgeois J, Xing Z, Kirpalani H. Pulmonary inflammatory cell sequestration in very low birth weight infants exposed to intrauterine inflammation: A positron emission tomography study. J Pediatr 2003; 143: 470-476.
46.*Vohra S, Roberts RS, Zhang B, Janes M, Schmidt B. Heat loss prevention (HeLP) in the delivery room: a randomized controlled trial of polyethylene occlusive skin wrapping in very preterm infants. J Pediatr 2004; 145:750-753.
47.Monkman S, Andersen C, Nahmias C, Ghaffer H, Roberts R, Schmidt B, Kirpalani H. Positive end-expiratory pressure above lower inflection point minimizes influx of activated neutrophils into lung. Crit Care Med. 2004; 32:2471-5.
48.Ohlsson A, Roberts R, Schmidt B, Davis P, Moddeman D, Saigal S, Solimano A, Vincer M, Wright L, and Tipp Investigators. Male/Female Difference in Indomethacin Effects in Preterm Infants. J Pediatr. 2005;147:860-2.
49.Zupancic JAF, Richardson DK, O’Brien BJ, Cronin CG, Schmidt B, Weinstein MC and the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms Investigators. Retrospective economic evaluation of a controlled trial of indomethacin prophylaxis for patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. Early Hum Dev 2006;82:97-103.
50.Ambalavanan N, Baibergenova A, Carlo WA, Saigal S, Schmidt B, Thorpe KE. Early Prediction of Poor Outcome in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants by Classification Tree Analysis. J Pediatr 2006;148:438-44.
51.Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W, for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group. Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2112-21. This article was selected by the Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development as one of the “TOP TEN” scientific papers published in 2006 on early childhood development with at least one author based in a Canadian institution.
52.Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Fanaroff A, Davis P, Kirpalani HM, Nwaesei C, Vincer M and the TIPP Investigators: Indomethacin Prophylaxis, Patent Ductus Arteriosus and the Risk of bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Further analyses from the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP). J Pediatr 2006;148:730-4.
53.*Kabra N, Schmidt B, Roberts R, Doyle L, Papile L, Fanaroff A, and TIPP Investigators: Increased Risk of Neurosensory Impairment after Surgical Closure of a Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: Further Analyses from the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms. J Pediatr 2007;150:229-34.
54.Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W, for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group: Longterm effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1893-1902.
55.*AlFaleh K, Smyth J, Roberts R, Solimano A, Asztalos E, Schmidt B, for the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms Investigators: Prevention and 18- Month outcomes of serious pulmonary hemorrhage in extremely-low-birth-weight infants: Results from the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms. Pediatrics. 2008;121;e233-e238.
56.*Bassler D, Stoll B, Schmidt B, Asztalos E, Roberts RS, Robertson C, Sauve R: Using a count of neonatal morbidities to predict poor outcome in extremely low birth weight infants: Added role of neonatal infection. Pediatrics. 2009;123:313- 318.
57.Armbruster J, Schmidt B, Poets CF, Bassler D: Nurses’ compliance with alarm limits for pulse oximetry: qualitative study. J Perinatol. 2010; 30: 531-4.
58.Binenbaum G, Bruno CJ, Forbes BJ, Snyder MA, Mollen TJ, Schmidt B, Peterside I: Periocular ulcerative dermatitis associated with gentamicin ointment prophylaxis in newborns. J Pediatr 2010;156:320-321.
59.Davis PG, Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Doyle LW, Asztalos E, Haslam R, Sinha S, Tin W; for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group: Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial: Benefits may vary in subgroups. J Pediatr 2010;156:382-87.
60.Dukhovny D, Lorch SA, Schmidt B, Doyle LW, Kok JH, Roberts RS, Kamholz KL, Wang N, Mao W, Zupancic JA; for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group: Economic Evaluation of Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity. Pediatrics. 2011; 127:e146-e155.
61.Askie LM, Brocklehurst P, Darlow BA, Finer N, Schmidt B, Tarnow-Mordi W; NeOProM Collaborative Group: NeOProM: Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis Collaboration study protocol. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:6.
62.*DeMauro SB, Roberts RS, Davis P, Alvaro R, Bairam A, Schmidt B; for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Investigators. Impact of delivery room resuscitation on outcomes up to 18 Months in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2011;159:546-50.e1.
63.Schmidt B; Seshia M, Shankaran S, Mildenhall L, Tyson J, Lui K, Fok T, Roberts R; for the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterm Investigators. Effects of Prophylactic Indomethacin in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants With and Without Adequate Exposure to Antenatal Corticosteroids. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165:642-646.
64.*DeMauro SB, Giaccone A, Kirpalani H, Schmidt B. Quality of Reporting of Neonatal and Infant Trials in High-Impact Journals. Pediatrics. 2011; 128:e639- 44.
65.Doyle LW, Davis PG, Schmidt B, Anderson PJ. Cognitive outcome at 24 months is more predictive than at 18 months for IQ at 8-9 years in extremely low birth weight children. Early Hum Dev 2012;88:95-8.
66.Guillén U, DeMauro S, Ma L, Zupancic J, Roberts R, Schmidt B, Kirpalani H. Relationship between attrition and neurodevelopmental impairment rates in extremely preterm infants at 18 to 24 months: a systematic review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166:178-84.
67.Schmidt B, Anderson PJ, Doyle LW, Dewey D, Grunau RE, Asztalos EV, Davis PG, Tin W, Moddemann D, Solimano A, Ohlsson A, Barrington KJ, Roberts RS; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Investigators. Survival without disability to age 5 years after neonatal caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. JAMA 2012; 307:275-82.
68.Schmidt B, Whyte RK, Asztalos EV, Moddemann D, Poets C, Rabi Y, Solimano A, Roberts RS; for the Canadian Oxygen Trial (COT) Group. Effects of Targeting Higher vs Lower Arterial Oxygen Saturations on Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2013; 309:2111-20.
69. Sherenian M, Profit J, Schmidt B, Suh S, Xiao R, Zupancic JA, DeMauro SB. Nurse-to-Patient Ratios and Neonatal Outcomes: A Brief Systematic Review. Neonatology 2013;104:179-183.
70. *DeMauro SB, Cohen MS, Ratcliffe SJ, Abbasi S, Schmidt B. Serial echocardiography in very preterm infants: a pilot randomized trial. Acta Paediatr 2013;102:1048-53.
71. DeMauro SB, Douglas E, Karp K, Schmidt B, Patel J, Kronberger A, Scarboro  R, Posencheg M. Improving Delivery Room Management for Very Preterm  Infants. Pediatrics 2013;132:e1018-25.
72. *Giaccone A, Jensen E, Davis P, Schmidt B. Definitions of extubation success in very premature infants: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014;99:F124-7.
73. Schmidt B, Davis PG, Asztalos EV, Solimano A, Roberts RS. Association between severe retinopathy of prematurity and nonvisual disabilities at age 5 years. JAMA 2014;311:523-5.
74. *DeMauro S, Cairnie J, D'Ilario J, Kirpalani H, Schmidt B. Honesty, Trust and Respect during Consent Discussions in Neonatal Clinical Trials. Pediatrics. 2014;134:e1-3.
75. Doyle LW, Schmidt B, Anderson PJ, Davis PG, Moddemann D, Grunau RE, O’ Brien K, Sankaran K, Herlenius E, Roberts R; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Investigators. Reduction in Developmental Coordination Disorder with Neonatal Caffeine Therapy. J Pediatr. 2014; 165:356-359.e2.
76. Marcus CL, Traylor J, Biggs SN, Roberts RS, Nixon GM, Narang I,  Bhattacharjee R, Davey MJ, Horne RS, Cheshire M, Gibbons KJ, Dix J,  Asztalos E, Doyle LW, Opie GF, D'ilario J, Costantini L, Bradford R, Schmidt B.  Feasibility of comprehensive, unattended ambulatory polysomnography in  school-aged children. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014 Aug;10:913-8.
77. Marcus CL, Meltzer LJ, Roberts RS, Traylor J, Dix J, D'ilario J, Asztalos E,  Opie G, Doyle LW, Biggs SN, Nixon GM, Narang I, Bhattacharjee R, Davey M,  Horne RS, Cheshire M, Gibbons J, Costantini L, Bradford R, Schmidt B; for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity – Sleep (CAP-S) study. Long-term Effects of  Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity on Sleep at School-age.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190:791-9.
78. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Whyte RK, Asztalos EV, Poets C, Rabi Y,  Solimano A, Nelson H; Canadian Oxygen Trial Group. Impact of Study  Oximeter Masking Algorithm on Titration of Oxygen Therapy in the  Canadian Oxygen Trial. J Pediatr. 2014;165:666-71.
79. Costantini L, D'Ilario J, Moddemann D, Penner K, Schmidt B; Accuracy of  Bayley Scores as Outcome Measures in Trials of Neonatal Therapies.  JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169:188-9.
80. Manley BJ, Roberts RS, Doyle LW, Schmidt B, Anderson PJ, Barrington KJ,  Böhm B, Golan A, van Wassenaer-Leemhuis AG, Davis PG; Caffeine for  Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Investigators. Social Variables Predict Gains  in Cognitive Scores across the Preschool Years in Children with Birth Weights  500 to 1250 grams. J Pediatr. 2015;166:870-6.e1-2.
81. *Foglia E, Nolen T, DeMauro S, Das A, Bell E, Stoll B, Schmidt, B: for the  Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human  Development Neonatal Research Network. Short-term Outcomes of Infants  Enrolled in Randomized Clinical Trials vs Those Eligible but Not Enrolled.  JAMA 2015; 313:2377-9.
82. Poets CF, Roberts RS, Schmidt B, Whyte RK, Asztalos EV, Bader D, Bairam  A, Moddemann D, Peliowski A, Rabi Y, Solimano A, Nelson H; Canadian  Oxygen Trial Investigators. Association Between Intermittent Hypoxemia or  Bradycardia and Late Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants.  JAMA 2015; 314:595-603.
83. Synnes A, Anderson PJ, Grunau RE, Dewey D, Moddemann D, Tin W, Davis  PG, Doyle LW, Foster G, Khairy M, Nwaesei C, Schmidt B; CAP Trial  Investigator group. Predicting severe motor impairment in preterm children at  age 5 years. Arch Dis Child. 2015;100:748-53.
84. Poindexter BB, Feng R, Schmidt B, Aschner JL, Ballard RA, Hamvas A,  Reynolds AM, Shaw PA, Jobe AH; Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes  Program. Comparisons and Limitations of Current Definitions of  Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015; 12:1822-30
85. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis PG, Doyle LW, Asztalos EV, Opie G, Bairam A,  Solimano A, Arnon S, Sauve RS; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP)  Trial Investigators. Prediction of Late Death or Disability at Age 5 Years Using  a Count of 3 Neonatal Morbidities in Very Low Birth Weight Infants. J Pediatr  2015;167:982-986.e2
86. *Jensen EA, Panitch H, Feng R, Moore PE, Schmidt B. Interobserver  Reliability of the Respiratory Physical Examination in Premature Infants: A  Multicenter Study. J Pediatr 2016;178:87-92
87. Schmidt B, Whyte RK, Shah PS, Abbasi S, Bairam A, Harrold J, Roberts RS;  Canadian Oxygen Trial (COT) Group. Effects of Targeting Higher or Lower  Oxygen Saturations in Centers with More Versus Less Separation between  Median Saturations. J Pediatr 2016; 178:288-291.e2
88. *Foglia EE, Whyte RK, Chaudhary A, Mott A, Chen J, Propert KJ, Schmidt B. The Effect of Skin Pigmentation on the Accuracy of Pulse Oximetry in Infants  with Hypoxemia. J Pediatr 2017; 182:375-377.e2.
89. *Jensen EA, Dysart KC, Gantz MG, Carper B, Higgins RD, Keszler M,  Laughon MM, Poindexter BB, Stoll BJ, Walsh MC, Schmidt B; Eunice  Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development  Neonatal Research Network. Association between Use of Prophylactic  Indomethacin and the Risk for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely  Preterm Infants. J Pediatr 2017;186:34-40.
90. Whyte RK, Nelson H, Roberts RS, Schmidt B. Benefits of Oxygen Saturation Targeting Trials: Oximeter Calibration Software Revision and Infant  Saturations. J Pediatr 2017;182:382-384.
91. Walsh MC, Bell EF, Kandefer S, Saha S, Carlo WA, D'Angio CT, Laptook AR,  Sanchez PJ, Stoll BJ, Shankaran S, Van Meurs KP, Cook N, Higgins RD, Das  A, Newman NS, Schibler K, Schmidt B, Cotten CM, Poindexter BB, Watterberg  KL, Truog WE. Neonatal outcomes of moderately preterm infants compared to  extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Res 2017; 82:297-304.
92. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Anderson PJ, Asztalos EV, Costantini L, Davis PG,  Dewey D, D'Ilario J, Doyle LW, Grunau RE, Moddemann D, Nelson H,  Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial  Group. Academic Performance, Motor Function, and Behavior 11 Years After  Neonatal Caffeine Citrate Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity: An 11-Year  Follow-up of the CAP Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr 2017;171:565-  72.
93. Foglia EE, Roberts RS, Stoller JZ, Davis PG, Haslam R, Schmidt B; Trial of  Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms Investigators. Effect of Prophylactic  Indomethacin in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Based on the Predicted  Risk of Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage. Neonatology. 2018;113(2):183-  186.
94. Mürner-Lavanchy IM, Doyle LW, Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Asztalos EV,  Costantini L, Davis PG, Dewey D, D'Ilario J, Grunau RE, Moddemann D,  Nelson H, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W, Anderson PJ; Caffeine for Apnea of  Prematurity (CAP) Trial Group. Neurobehavioral Outcomes 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity. Pediatrics 2018;141(5).  pii: e20174047.
95. Askie LM, Darlow BA, Finer N, Schmidt B, Stenson B, Tarnow-Mordi W, Davis  PG, Carlo WA, Brocklehurst P, Davies LC, Das A, Rich W, Gantz MG, Roberts  RS, Whyte RK, Costantini L, Poets C, Asztalos E, Battin M, Halliday HL,  Marlow N, Tin W, King A, Juszczak E, Morley CJ, Doyle LW, Gebski V, Hunter  KE, Simes RJ; Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis (NeOProM)  Collaboration. Association Between Oxygen Saturation Targeting and Death or  Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Oxygenation
Prospective Meta-analysis Collaboration. JAMA 2018; 319:2190-2201.
96. Foglia EE, Carper B, Gantz M, DeMauro SB, Lakshminrusimha S, Walsh M,  Schmidt B; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and  Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Association between Policy Changes for Oxygen Saturation Alarm Settings and Neonatal Morbidity and  Mortality in Infants Born Very Preterm. J Pediatr 2019;209:17-22.e2.
97. DeMauro SB, Bellamy SL, Fernando M, Hoffmann J, Gratton T, Schmidt B;  PROP Investigators. Patient, Family, and Center-Based Factors Associated  with Attrition in Neonatal Clinical Research: A Prospective Study. Neonatology  2019;115:328-334.
98. Schmidt B, Anderson PJ, Asztalos EV, Doyle LW, Grunau RE, Moddemann D,  Roberts RS. Self-reported Quality of Life at Middle School Age in Survivors of  Very Preterm Birth: Results from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial.  JAMA Pediatr 2019;173:487-489.
99. Jensen EA, Roberts RS, Schmidt B. Drugs to Prevent Bronchopulmonary  Dysplasia: Effect of baseline risk on the Number Needed to Treat. J Pediatr  2020;222:244-7.
100. Kirpalani H, Bell EF, Hintz SR, Tan S, Schmidt B, Chaudhary AS, Johnson KJ,  Crawford MM, Newman JE, Vohr BR, Carlo WA, D'Angio CT, Kennedy KA,  Ohls RK, Poindexter BB, Schibler K, Whyte RK, Widness JA, Zupancic JAF,  Wyckoff MH, Truog WE, Walsh MC, Chock VY, Laptook AR, Sokol GM, Yoder  BA, Patel RM, Cotten CM, Carmen MF, Devaskar U, Chawla S, Seabrook R,  Higgins RD, Das A; Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Neonatal Research  Network. Higher or Lower Hemoglobin Transfusion Thresholds for Preterm
Infants. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383:2639-2651.
101. Jensen EA, Whyte RK, Schmidt B, Bassler D, Vain NE, Roberts RS; Canadian  Oxygen Trial Investigators. Association between Intermittent Hypoxemia and  Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021;204(10):1192-1199.


Selection of most prestigious Honors and Awards:

2008 Inaugural Clinical Trial of the Year Award for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial The Society for Clinical Trials and Project Impact
2015 Member of the Order of Canada (CM) “For her contributions to advancing the standard of care for critically ill newborns in Canada and abroad.”
2016 Honorary Member, SIBEN (Sociedad Iberoamericana de Neonatologia)
2017 William A Silverman Lectureship Award, Section on Perinatal Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, San Francisco
2018 Lung Club Lectureship Award, Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, Toronto
2019 Douglas K. Richardson Award for Perinatal & Pediatric Healthcare Research, Society for Pediatric Research (SPR). This award honors the lifetime achievement of a clinical investigator who has made substantive contributions to pediatric health care and health services research.
2019 Virginia Apgar Award, Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics. This award honors an individual whose career has had a continuing influence on the well-being of newborn infants.
2021 Joseph L Butterfield Memorial Lectureship Award (Virtual delivery), Neonatal-Perinatal Section, American Academy of Pediatrics. Announced; award ceremony pending:
2022 Arvo Ylppö Medal and Award. This Finnish award has been given since 1957 every 5th year to the most accomplished domestic or international investigator and physician promoting the health of high-risk newborn infants.



Barbara Schmidt is a neonatologist and clinical epidemiologist who led several large international neonatal randomized trials with clinically important, long-term outcomes:

1. Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP)
2. Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial
3. Canadian Oxygen Trial (COT)

These studies were coordinated by the Neonatal Trials Group at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. The CAP trial was chosen by the Society for Clinical Trials for its inaugural Trial of the Year Award in 2008 (now named the David Sackett Annual Trial of the Year Award).

Currently, Dr. Schmidt is a Professor (Part-time) in the Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact at McMaster University, and a Professor Emerita at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. From 2011 until 2018, she was the principal investigator for the University of Pennsylvania and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in the Neonatal Research Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Throughout her career, she has mentored talented neonatal trainees who were enthusiastic about evidence-based neonatal practice and clinical research.

Dr. Schmidt has received the highest honors in her specialty, including the Douglas K Richardson Award from the Society for Pediatric Research, and the Virginia Apgar Award from the American Academy of Pediatrics. She is a member of the Order of Canada.

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