„The preparatory course organised by IPOKRaTES is aimed at students and young scientists, to provide them with the necessary preparation for a career in research. The subjects are those that form the base for successful research, both from a conceptual and an operative standpoint. The programs are state of the art and the lectures are of first class quality. I think the course is, therefor, very valuable and useful to anyone considering a career in research.“
Nobel Laureat and Member of IPOKRaTES Board of Trustees
This curriculum is meant to provide the young researcher with a intellectual base ,thiking skills and practical guidance for his/her research. It shall enable him /her to bring about excellent , innovative research on onehand by avoiding common mistakes and on the other hand by encouraging him/her to original thinking, critical analysis and effective work.This curriculum should offer a structured guidance to research work in a compressed form and achieve a science education similar to the one offered at excellent anglo-american or european research centers.
Summary of Contents
- Theories of knowledge as a basis for experimental research
- Epidemiology , Statistics and Mathematical Modelling
- Research Training based on Evaluation of published and submitted papers, on Interaction and Discussion with Editors of renowned journals.
- Training in Finding , Forming and Formulating Questions and Hypothesis
- Presentation , Defense and Discussions of Research Protocols together with Editors.
- Methods of macrophysical measurements and biochemical analysis, cellular cultures and animal experiments ( individualized courses )
- Literature Search, Data storage and retrieval, Graphs and Illustrations
- Science Writing and Coaching the Publication Process
- Ethical and legal Aspects of Research
- Grant Application
First block (Two weeks)
I. Philosophy of science:
Lecturers (one exterior and one local):
Craig, Cambridge or Volmer, Braunschweig or Daston L, Berlin or Chalmers, Australia
Content (10 hrs Lectures , 10 hrs Reading)
From single Observation to general statements (Francis Bacon – David Hume) – Falsification of bold hypothesis (Karl Popper ) Research Programs (Imre Lakatos – Thomas Kuhn). Evolutionary Concepts of Acquisition of Knowledge (Maturana U – Vollmer G) Science: Its History and Relation to Culture (Paul Feyerabend, Lorraine Daston)-
II. Informatics and cybernetics:
Theories on Random, Rules and Miracles
Lecturer (one exterior or local) :
Content (10 hrs)
Random and Information (Gell-Mann); Complexity and Reduction. Knowledge from the Viewpoint of Informatics. Random and Rules (Manfred Eigen); Theory of Games (vonNeumann, Morgenstern); Feed-forward and feed back systems; Control and Regulation .
III. Epidemiology, statistics and mathematical modelling:
Lecturers (two exterior and one local)
San Francisco, Boston, NIH Klebanoff, Pocock, Statisticians of Lancet, NEJM etc
Licko V, Univ California SF
Content (30 hrs)
Statistics of Clinical and randomized controlled trials
Multiple Regression Analysis
Use of Statistical Programs
Decision Making, Risk Assessment and Prediction (Sensitivity etc; Receiver Operating Characteristics).
Mathematical Modelling (Receptor -Ligand, Compartment Modelling etc)
Second block (One week)
IV. Research training:
Lecturers (three exteriors)
Angell Marcia, Associate Editor , N Engl J Med,
Editor of Biomedical Journal
Thierry Lacaze, INSERM or NIH Scientist & Juror
Content (30 hrs) Interactive Sessions , some formal lecturing, discussion of examples.
Critical Reading and Discussion of 10 published articles (5 hrs)
Practical Evaluation of twenty ( historical ) manuscripts in original form of submission and Working through the Editorial Process of ten Manuscripts (10 hrs).
Training in Finding , Forming and Formulating Questions and Hypothesis (5 hrs).
Development of Research Protocols: Planning Procedures, Choice of Subjects, Models, Measurements , Interventions and Endpoints (10 hrs).
Discussion of actual Research Protocols of Young Researcher with Editors of Journals (10 hrs)
Third block (Two weeks)
V. Methods of measurements:
Individualized Courses by Local Scientist
Content (20 hrs)
Macrophysical Measurements (Pressures, Flows, Temperatures etc)
Biochemical Research Analysis
– PCR, Mutation Detection Method, Sequencing, Southern Blot
– Sinlge Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection (DANN Chips, Mulitplex PCR) cDNA Mapping
– Tranfection, in vitro Expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
– Expression Assys: Nothern Blot, RNA Analysis, Expression Chips
– Gene Analysis „in silico“, Data Base Tools, Bioinformatic Procedures
2 D Gel-Electrophoreseis; Western Blotting, MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry
Yeast Two-Hybrid Protein-Interaction Studies
Immunfluorescence, Antibody Detection and Visualization; Autoradiography; Confocal Laser-Miscroscopy; Patch Clamp Studies
VI. Science communication:
(Sci Writing exterior, one local on ethics, one local on med informatics):
Zeiger M or Celia Emmery or Editorial Assistant to Journal
Truog R, Harvard Med Sch, Boston
Medical Informatics Librarian ?
Content (40 hrs)
Medical Information: Literature Search, Data Storage and Retrieval,
Science Writing , Graphs and Illustrations and Coaching the Publication Process (about 25 hrs)
Ethical , Legal and Political Aspects of Research of Researtch (10 hrs)
Grant Application (1 hrs)